Careers and stakeholder

Professional profile: Specialist in modeling of geophysical processes and in acquisition and analysis of geophysical data.

Function in a work context
The role of the graduate in Geophysics in a working context concerns the analysis and solution of geophysical problems lato sensu, as well as scientific research and applicative studies on geophysical aspects concerning the Earth system. This function can be carried out both as an employee within the technical roles of public and private entities, even at a high professional and managerial level, and as a freelancer.
The graduate in Geophysics can carry out development and application activities of mathematical and numerical models of geophysical and environmental systems and processes, which involve atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere and interior of the Earth, and can plan and carry out geophysical observation and exploration activities of the planet Earth at different scales, with particular reference to geophysical investigations with various application fields.
The final objectives, both in the public and private sectors, include: the production of data, processed from raw data, which can be obtained from the geophysical instrumentation for measuring the different components of the Earth system and at different spatial and temporal scales; the elaboration, through "forward" models, of forecasts of the evolution in time and space of processes concerning different components of the Earth system.
Graduates in Geophysics can also carry out, independently or in working groups, activities for the mitigation of natural and environmental risks, especially in relation to the hazard linked to seismicity, extreme weather events, environmental contamination. In particular, they can share their skills with professionals who have different backgrounds, such as engineers, geologists, computer scientists, in order to optimize and harmonize activities concerning environmental issues, natural risks, management of natural resources and of the territory, both in the private and public sectors. This kind of professional figure is particularly useful, as it can also act as a link between companies, public bodies or offices with stakeholders or decision makers.
The refinement of transversal skills, such as problem solving, team work, coding, qualifies the graduates in Geophysics also in view of professional opportunities not strictly related to geophysics.
Finally, the skills acquired in the operational and management field, combined with the general preparation on the topics central to the MS degree, can also allow graduates in Geophysics to assume responsibility and coordination functions both in public administration and in the private sector.

Skills associated with the function
Graduates in Geophysics are able to use the most advanced methodologies to examine and describe, with extreme scientific rigor, the physical phenomena and processes that modify the territory, which is a strongly integrated system between the compartments of solid Earth, hydrosphere, cryosphere and atmosphere. They are able to develop the physical-mathematical formulation of phenomena and to implement this formulation in computational codes, through the most efficient and advanced programming languages, computing facilities and data processing systems. Therefore, they are able to develop "forward" modelling that allows to predict the evolution and effects of these phenomena on the environment, both at global and local scale, in order to minimize any negative impacts on the population and on society. At the same time, graduates in Geophysics are able to measure the different parts of the Earth with the most sophisticated techniques, in order both to monitor changes and to validate the software and modelling algorithms developed.
The skills of graduates in Geophysics can therefore address a wide range of environmental issues, related to land control, seismic risk, other natural risks, natural resource management and geophysical exploration. These skills may also include the implementation of algorithms and computer codes, developed by the graduates themselves independently or with the collaboration of other professionals. Therefore, graduates in Geophysics have complete control of the results of the developed or applied software and this makes them highly competitive in the job market, which nowadays requires important skills both in the field of software development and in the processing of large amounts of data. Graduates in Geophysics bring new skills with a strong technological-algorithmic base to the professions concerning territorial control, renewing and pushing the methodologies for the control of the different components of the Earth and the territory to today's technological frontier.

Professional opportunities
Graduates in Geophysics can find various immediate professional opportunities: technical roles in bodies or institutions that explicitly deal with geophysics (for example, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which has over 1000 staff units, about half of which in the roles of researchers or technologists with permanent employment contracts, and the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) and/or environmental issues, natural risks, management of natural resources; positions for carrying out research and development or technical-scientific activities in companies operating in the fields of geophysical exploration, environmental protection, meteorology, development of instrumentation and software for geophysical modelling and data mining. Graduates in Geophysics can carry out professional consultancy activities in the same areas and apply to the state exam for "geologist" (Section A of the professional register of the order of geologists, pursuant to DPR 05/06/2001, n. 328), for the passing of which a targeted training course plan will be required, through an appropriate selection of elective activities, also after the degree, e.g., as a trainee in professional offices.
Graduates in Geophysics can also continue their studies in doctoral courses, both in Italy and abroad, to start an international career in the academic field, in research institutions or in geological services, or to pursue a career in high-level technical-scientific roles, also with responsibility for projects, laboratories and structures, in organizations, institutions and companies.
Thanks to the flexible and technological training based on the most advanced data acquisition and software development methodologies, the professionalism of graduates in Geophysics can also be appreciated in fields different from those relating to the components of the Earth system to which the course of study is dedicated, with the possibility of also playing a managerial role.
Finally, graduates in Geophysics can access training courses for teaching in Italy in lower secondary school (Scuola secondaria inferiore) in classes A-28 (Mathematics and science) and upper secondary school (Scuola secondaria superiore) in classes A-20 (Physics) and A-50 (Natural, chemical and biological sciences). This opportunity is subject to the fact that the student has acquired, during his/her university career, the minimum credits required in appropriate scientific disciplinary sectors (see Table A attached to DPR 14/02/2016, n. 19) and 24 credits in anthropo-psycho-pedagogical disciplines and in teaching methodologies and technologies, specifically related to the class for which he/her intend to apply for access, in accordance with current legislation (D.Lgs. 13/04/2017, n. 59).

Employment statistics (Almalaurea)
Careers and stakeholders

The programme interacts with local, national and international stakeholders, such as professional organizations, manufacturing companies and service providers.